The Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), or “boto-cinza” in Portuguese, is a symbol of Rio de Janeiro — literally. The city flag features a pair of red, stylized Guiana dolphins cradling Rio’s coat of arms.
Rio’s flag. Credit: Google Images.
Guiana dolphins (a.k.a. boto-cinza). Credit: Google Images.
Federal prosecutors in Brazil are fighting to make sure this species remains more than just an image on a flag. Like so many cetaceans, the Guiana dolphin is under siege from multiple angles, absorbing attacks from overfishing (depleting the dolphins’ source of food), by-catch, and habitat modification. The coastal Guiana dolphin (there is also a freshwater variant) is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). Its listing in Appendix II signifies that it has an unfavourable conservation status and would benefit significantly from international co-operation. This determination is echoed in Brazlian wildlife law, where the dolphin is listed as “vulnerable.”
On February 10, the Brazilian federal prosecutors’ office (Federal Prosecution Service or Ministério Público Federal, in Portuguese) issued a document detailing the critical state of affairs and requesting immediate action by public and private actors.
In coordination with the prosecutors’ office, Sea Shepherd Legal has agreed to disseminate this document and its central message: Absent significant and rapid change, the Guiana dolphin could well disappear from the Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande region in southern Rio de Janeiro. (Scroll to the bottom of this post for a link to the document, in Portuguese.)
Map of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande in the lower left-hand corner, near the border with Sao Paulo. Credit: Google Images.
The highest number of Guiana dolphins registered in Brazil — and in the world — is found between the cities of Itaguai, Mangaratiba, and Angra dos Reis, all three of which hug the Baia de Sepetiba.
Yet, as the Ministério Público Federal explains, the Guiana dolphins in Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande have been decimated in recent years. In 2002/2003, a population study identified approximately 1,300 individuals. Today, there are fewer than 800 That’s a drop of roughly 40% in just over a decade.
Percentage of carcasses recovered in Baia de Sepetiba, by year (2005-2015). Credit: Instituto Boto Cinza.
Why is the local population crashing? The causes are manifold. Here are a few of the more important factors (per the Ministério Público Federal):
- Overfishing of prey species
- Incidental capture (by both commercial and artisanal fishermen)
- Decreased habitat
- Increased boat traffic
- Port development
- Other industrial and urban development in coastal regions
The combined harm from all these sources has produced a scenario where the Guiana dolphin may be entirely wiped out from Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande — and all of Rio state — in ten years’ time.
As this list of factors suggests, this truly is a “death by a thousand cuts” scenario for the dolphins. But some cuts go deeper than others — and, perhaps ironically, some of the deepest cuts also seem to be the most preventable. For instance, the federal government plans to double the size of the channel that runs through the heart of the dolphins’ habitat in Baia de Sepetiba. Vessel traffic will double from approximately 1,800 vessels per year to 3,600 vessels per year. The vessel traffic displaces dolphins, which then die in fishing nets. The noise interferes with echolocation. And this is to say nothing of the harm produced by dredging and explosions associated with the project in the first instance.
As bad as that is, the harm is compounded by the activities of artisanal, commercial, and illegal fishing operations, mainly targeting tuna. The increased vessel traffic through the channel is displacing dolphins and fisherman, corralling them into a smaller region. This has resulted in increased human-dolphin interactions and extremely high by-catch and mortality.
What’s more, according to the federal prosecutors’ office, fisheries enforcement in the Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande region is “practically zero.” Even if the vessel traffic remained constant, effective fisheries enforcement could at least reduce by-catch by limiting illegal fishing, fishing with prohibited gear, and so forth. As is, the token enforcement efforts have not reduced dolphin mortality one bit.
Besides all this, there are slews of vessels that anchor right in the middle of the dolphins’ favored areas of concentration. This is yet one more controllable factor that is displacing the dolphins toward fishing nets, toward death.
All this bad news notwithstanding, there is reason for hope. The federal prosecutors’ office has made this issue a priority and is putting pressure on the major players — public and private alike — to avert disaster. Among other measures, the prosecutors’ office is calling for:
(1) The creation of a coalition police force to monitor and respond to illegal and excessive fishing, with mandatory patrols in the bay every week.
(2) The preparation of a technical study by the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) to verify the need for changes in fishing practices and regulations in the Baia de Sepetiba/Ilha Grande region.
(3) The formation of a new group under the auspices of the State Environmental Institute (INEA) — the primary body involved in project licensing in the bay — with the task of reassessing mitigation measures to improve conditions for conservation. To add credibility to this group, the federal prosecutors have requested the participation of the Instituto Boto Cinza.
(4) The creation of a new plan by INEA to promote community-based tourism as an alternative source of income for local fishermen.
(5) The immediate cessation of any additional licensing by INEA that could cause harm to the dolphins and their habitat, pending additional scientific study.
(6) The prohibition, by the port authority in Rio de Janeiro, of anchoring in the dolphins’ favored areas of concentration.
The prosecutors’ office has given the relevant public authorities 10 days to respond to its report and recommendations for policy changes. We will be following the story and will keep our readers abreast of important developments.
In closing, we congratulate the Ministério Público Federal for its brave and important efforts to save these beautiful creatures. Sea Shepherd Legal looks forward to assisting this campaign in any way it can. Keep up the good fight!
Link to document from Brazil’s Ministério Público Federal: Recomendação 5-2016 – diversas autoridades – Boto-Cinza – IC 153-2014-17